Analytic Functions Kozubnik 1979: Proceedings by Lawrynowicz J. (Ed)

By Lawrynowicz J. (Ed)

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Example text

Therefore, overall variation of the integrated intensity is less significant compared to the variations of FWHM and Imax. 2 Diffraction Patterns The above diffraction condition is based on the existence of long periodicity of crystalline materials. In general, X-ray diffraction can provide information on the atomic arrangement in materials with long-range order, short-range order, or no order at all, like gases, liquids, and amorphous solids. A material may have one of the above atomic arrangement types, or a mixture of the above types.

If g takes only the values within the diffractometer plane, that is, g ¼ 90 on the negative YL side and g ¼ 270 on the positive YL side, the diffracted beams stay within the diffractometer plane. This is the case in the conventional diffractometer. There has been much confusion regarding the definition of the diffraction plane; some literature name the crystalline planes satisfying the Bragg condition as diffraction planes and some call the plane containing the incident beam and diffracted beam as diffraction plane.

Therefore, many equations developed for XRD2 in this book should also apply to conventional XRD if the g angle is set at 90 or 270 . A pair of g and 2u values represents the direction of a diffracted beam. The g angle takes a value from 0 to 360 for a complete diffraction ring and 2u takes a value from 0 to 180 . Complete g and 2u angles form a kind of spherical coordinate system that covers all the directions from the origin of sample (goniometer center). The g–2u system is fixed in the laboratory systems XLYLZL, which is independent of the sample orientation and detector position in the goniometer.

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