By Jan W. Gooch
`...In end, this publication might be a really necessary resource of reference for the polymer analyst operating in academia or who has to characterise and deformulate a variety of polymer products.'
Polymer trying out, 18:231-232 (1999)
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Additional resources for Analysis and Deformulation of Polymeric Materials: Paints, Plastics, Adhesives, and Inks
16 Chapter 2 Although this method of obtaining contrast is quite general, the scattering processes involved are going to vary widely for different materials, and it is convenient to discriminate between those that occur in the two approaches employable for studying surfaces. In the replication method, most replicas are essentially amorphous. The diffraction of electrons from replicas is therefore going to differ from the type that occurs in profile sections which are more likely to be crystalline.
However, a new transmission microscope, the EMMA 4, has been developed with combined transmission microscope and probe capability by the introduction of a “minilens” in the illumination system (Cooke and Duncumb, 1969; Jacobs, 1971). This instrument should be considered a special case of microprobe analysis, also treated in this volume (Hutchins, 1974). EMMA 4 has demonstrated considerable power in a number of applications and could easily be applied to surfaces, but it will not be further considered here because the primary emphasis is on the topography of paint.
If no dipole moment is created, as in the C=C bond (when located symmetrically in the molecule) undergoing stretching vibration, then no radiation is absorbed and the vibrational mode is said to be infrared inactive. Fortunately, an infrared inactive mode will usually give a strong Raman signal. As defined by quantum laws, the vibrations are not random events but can occur only at specific frequencies governed by the atomic masses and strengths of the chemical bonds. Mathematically, this can be expressed as 33 Surface Analysis 1 – v= 2 πc — k √ – µ where v is the frequency of the vibration, c is the velocity of light, k is the force constant, and µ is the reduced mass ofthe atoms involved.