By Stuart C. Poole (auth.)
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Extra info for An Introduction to Linguistics
It is in this latter way that a Spaniard articulates the sound /e/ in, for example, the word cinco meaning five. Even within the same variety of speech Phonetics 47 a sound may vary depending on its environment. In the word top the first stop is released before the voicing of the vowel starts, with the result that there is a moment when voiceless air is expelled; in such cases the It I is said to be aspirated. In the word stop, however, the It I is not aspirated. In the word month the Inl is dental under the influence of the dental lei that follows it.
An utterance is, however, only a performative utterance if the conditions necessary to make it an act prevail. I apologize only constitutes an apology if the speaker has done something wrong and if he acknowledges that he has done so. Nobody would end up behind bars if I said I hereby sentence you to three years in prison; to constitute an act this utterance requires such conditions as the listener having been found guilty of a crime and the speaker having the authority of a judge. As we saw in the case of the man and the woman at the party, an offer is only an offer if the speaker is able and willing to do what is said.
To an anthropologist interested in life in the Andes it may suggest either. If the anthropologist thinks of the animal he is likely to have thoughts different to those that come to the child; while the child is likely to think of a small furry pet, the anthropologist ma y well think of the animal as a foodstuff. Similarly, due to their cultural backgrounds, Britons may think of Christmas when they hear the word turkey, Americans may think of Thanksgiving. Here we are dealing with connotation, more subjective links, links of the kind that result from word association exercises in which you are asked to say the first thing that comes into your mind when you hear a particular word.