By Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday, Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Functional Grammar
Note that these are not deﬁnitive descriptions of these words; they are introduced here to show the principle of ‘lexis as delicate grammar’. For other examples, see Hasan (1985, 1987) and Halliday and Matthiessen (1999). neutral (1) FORCE projecting MOOD TYPE indicating toned up (2) toned toned down (3) imperating AUTHORITY neutral (1) personal (2) weighted institutional (3) verbal LOADING non-projecting neutral (1) positive (2) loaded negative (3) Fig. 2-7 Extension of the grammar of transitivity in delicacy towards lexis: a fragment of the lexicogrammar of the verbal process type (sub-type ‘imperating’: see Table 5(25), p.
2 above). The system in this general sense is equivalent to the totality of all the speciﬁc systems that would ﬁgure in a comprehensive network covering every stratum. 26 Basic concepts for the study of language phenomenon seen from different standpoints of the observer. What we call ‘climate’ is weather seen from a greater depth of time — it is what is instantiated in the form of weather. The weather is the text: it is what goes on around us all the time, impacting on, and sometimes disturbing, our daily lives.
Figure 1-10 represents the stratal organization of language, and shows how the stratiﬁed linguistic system is ‘embedded’ in context (cf. Halliday, 1978; Halliday and Hasan, 1985; Martin, 1992). 4 Instantiation When we want to explain how language is organized, and how its organization relates to the function it fulﬁls in human life, we often ﬁnd it difﬁcult to make things clear; and this is because we are trying to maintain two perspectives at once. One perspective is that of language as system; the other perspective is that of language as text.