Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs by Niklaus Wirth

By Niklaus Wirth

One of many vintage texts on information buildings and algorithms! Examples are in Pascal.

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Feedforward control is always used along with feedback control, even for open loop stable systems, because feedback is required to track setpoint changes and to suppress unmeasured disturbances that are always present in any real process. 4 Inappropriate Control Structure Inadequate input/output pairing, ignoring mutual interactions between the system variables, competing controllers, insufficient degrees of freedom, the presence of strong nonlinearities and the lack of time-delay compensation in the system are frequently found as sources for control problems.

This will hold if the optimization problem is convex in the disturbance space of interest. 7 Case Study We consider an isothermal CSTR with two parallel reactions, as depicted in Fig. 2, taken from Srinivasan et al (2008). The reactor is fed with two feed streams FA and FB which contain the reactants A and B in the concentrations cA and cB . In the main vessel, the two components react to the desired product C, and the undesired side product D. The reactants A and B are not consumed completely during the reaction, so the outflow contains all four products.

Some tuning of the monitoring method must be expected. The guidelines for choosing IAElim is based on knowledge of the ultimate frequency of the control loop – which typically is not known unless a Ziegler-Nichols type tuning experiment or a H¨agglund type autotuner is used. Alternatively, it is proposed to base IAElim on the controller integral time – which is only reasonable if the loop is well tuned. 3 The Regularity Index H¨ agglund’s monitoring method is extended in Thornhill and H¨agglund (1997) for off-line oscillation detection, resulting in a new oscillation measure called the regularity index.

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