Acid Base indicators by I.M. Kolthoff

By I.M. Kolthoff

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Dissociation constants of acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide with temperature. 1 A. A. Noyes: J. Am. Chem. , SO, 349 (1909). ACID-BASE INDICATORS 22 the effect of increasing temperature on the dissociation conand bases may be disregarded, then the degree of will change only because the ion product of water, hydrolysis If stants of acids K Thus the ion product increases with increasing temperature. water at 100 is about one hundred times its value at room W) of temperature. It has been shown that the strong acid-weak base type pH may of a solution of a salt of the be calculated in the following manner: pH = %pKw - |pBOH At ordinary temperatures %pKw equals i log 7, c.

If this (40) (41) it THE REACTION OF AND SALTS ACIDS, BASES, condition is not fulfilled, and the degree above equations assume the form 19 of ionization is a, the : [BOH] = [HA] = ac^^ |^ (38a) ILLTJSTKATIONS. The simplest example is the case of ammonium acetate. The dissociation constants of both acetic acid and ammonia equal 10~ 4 75 From (42) it follows that in a solution * . 38 7. Evidently a solution of this salt reacts exactly neutral. 562%. 0006 N. The hydrolysis of ammonium formate will be considered next.

Ion. This is no longer true when the aromatic amino acids, such as benzoic acid derivatives, are concerned. ). CHAPTER THREE THE ION ACTIVITY THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION TO ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA 1. Historical review. Classification of electrolytes. of GROTTHUS concerning the elecconductivity of solutions proposed that the positive and negative parts of the electrolyte molecules were transferred from As early as 4805 the theory trical molecule to molecule by a chain mechanism. portions must have an independent existence Consequently these for at least a short time during the electrolysis.

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