Accelerating China's rural transformation by Albert J. Nyberg, Scott Rozelle

By Albert J. Nyberg, Scott Rozelle

"...two concerns stay important to the [Chinese] government's rural improvement goals: nutrients safeguard and poverty relief. China has made impressive development in assembly those ambitions: the economic climate, together with the agricultural region, has grown at out of the ordinary charges throughout the reform period." whereas China's rural items, enter, exertions, and land markets are enhancing, they continue to be nascent. China nonetheless must foster numerous severe associations, akin to an efficient financial method, a extra effective rural economy, a potential land tenure association, and a made over alternate and funding surroundings for agriculture. the first goal of this document is to spot and consolidate info on those the most important concerns that effect on rural improvement in China. This document assesses strategic recommendations from the point of view of potency, equitable improvement, and development. it really is meant to help govt officers and global financial institution employees to prioritize coverage and institutional reforms and public funding judgements within the rural quarter.

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Rural Industry 87 11. Poverty Reduction 95 12. 2: India: Government Spending, Growth, and Poverty 99 Page v ABSTRACT China's rural economic achievements of the past two decadesrapid growth and declining povertyhave been remarkable. However, replicating these achievements and improving sustainability during the next two decades will be difficult as many underlying conditions have changed. Economic reforms were initiated when supply shortages constrained growth, but currently, weak demand is more constraining.

Piazza, F. Crook, A. Whitten, S. Shen, R. Zweig, G. Li, T. Tsutsumi, and F. Gillam contributed photographs and slides from their personal collections. Page viii ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ABC Agricultural Bank of China ADBC Agricultural Development Bank of China bcm Billion cubic meters CAAS Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science CASS Chinese Academy of Social Science CCAP Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy DDT Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane EPBs Environmental Protection Bureaus FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FDI Foreign Direct Investment FFW Food for Work HRS Household Responsibility System GDP Gross Domestic Product GVAO Gross Value of Agricultural Output HRS Household Responsibility System IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute IOU I Owe You IPM Integrated Pest Management IPR Intellectual Property Right IRD Institute of Rural Development LGPR Leading Group for Poverty Reduction MFIs Microfinance Institutions MOA Ministry of Agriculture MWR The Ministry of Water Resources NEPA National Environmental Protection Agency (now SEPAState Environmental Protection Agency) NGO Nongovernmental Organization ODA Overseas Development Assistance PBC People's Bank of China PPP Purchasing Power Parity R&D Research and Development RCCs Rural Credit Cooperatives RCFs Rural Credit Foundations RFIs Rural Finance Institutions SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises SOE State-Owned Enterprise SPC State Planning Commission (now SDPCState Development Planning Commission) TFP Total Factor Productivity TVEs Township and Village Enterprises VAT Value-Added Tax WUA Water User Association WTO World Trade Organization Page ix EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In its two decades of reform, China has achieved remarkable agricultural and rural-industrial growth, impressively reduced poverty, and reversed some of the environmental and natural resource degradation.

Productivity-Enhancing Policies and Investments Research and Extension: A Means for Raising Total Factor Productivity Historically, the agricultural sector has been well served by the public research system. By creating new technologies and crop varieties and improving agronomic practices, the research system raised total factor productivity in agriculture, expanded production frontiers, reduced long-term production costs, and improved rural incomes. Growth accounting analyses indicate that crop growth over the past decade was Page xiii overwhelmingly attributable to research investments.

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