By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is without doubt one of the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic kinfolk (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken via nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and through at the least an analogous variety of audio system in Turkey and a few heart east international locations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and by way of its minimum vocalic method: in simple terms vowels. even though Abkhaz was once studied by way of a few students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply okay. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many features of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless need to be correctly defined. Abkhaz is the single West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical periods, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in classification of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative building being represented no longer by way of case endings, as in similar Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet via order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed frequently of 1 consonant, preceded by way of a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and by way of few suffixes. Verbs should be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical comic strip of Abkhaz contains information regarding its phonological approach, morphology, and syntax. a quick textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Additional info for Abkhaz
4, p. 128-142. 1999. The Origin of the Abk:haz People. G. ). The Abkhazians. A Handbook. London: Curzon Press, p. 37-47. 2003 . Evidential Category and Evidential Strategy in Abkhaz. In: Studies in Evidentiality. Edited by Alexandra Y. M. W. Dixon. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company (TSL 54), pp. 243-272. -Forthcoming. A Grammar of Sadz Abkhaz. P. 1970. Sistema vremen i osnovnykh modal'nykh obrazovanij v abkhazskoabazinskikh dialektakh [The System of Tenses and Basic Modal Formations in the Abkhaz- Abaza Dialects).
Apsua bezs0a (afonet'ik'ei amorfologie1). Alek'ciak 0a rk'urs. Aq"'a: Ala~ara (The Abkhaz Language (Phonetics and Morphology). Lectures Course. Sukhum: Alashara), 259 pp. 1983. Apsua bezs0a asint'ak'sis (The Syntax of the Abkhaz Language]. Aq"'a: Ala~ara, 248 pp. LW/M 119 79 Abkhaz 1979. Vvedenie v abkhazo-adygskoejazykoznanie [Introduction to the AbkhazAdyghean linguistics). Nal'chik: Kabardino-Balkarskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet, 146 pp. BGAZHBA, Kh. 1964. Bzybskij dialekt abkhazskogojazyka (issledovanie i teksty) [The Bzyp Dialect of the Abk:haz Language (Investigation and Texts)].
3. Reportative Verb. , the verb a-h 0a-ra is always in Aorist, usually in 3'd p. sg. H:M Ua-J-h 0a-e-jt'Jit. 'it-he-said'), but sometimes in the 3'd p. , which does not distinguish gender or grammatical clas~ (ji~-r-h oa-e:~t"it-the_y-said') . Its chief meaning is to indicate the reported nature of the descnbed event. verb, which refers to the author of the quote, coming first, and the reportatlve verb followmg It. Cf. the following examples: (70) dii-q 'a-n, e:~a-h 0 i -e-jt ; he-be-PAST it-he-say-AOR-DYN:FIN 'There was, they say (lit.