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Additional resources for A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry
49, 47, 171, 265 (1945). J. FERRY; Chem. Revs. 18, 373 (1936). 24 SIMPLE, BASIC EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Thus, using ultrafilters with very narrow capillaries the particles appear smaller than they actually are because they adsorb on and block the capillaries. Diffusion and dialysis It is remarkably difficult to perform accurate diffusion experiments in solutions. This was early noted by GRAHAM, who proposed to observe diffusion not in liquids but instead in soft jellies. By means of the following simple experiments it is easy to distinguish coloured colloids from coloured micromolecular solutions.
Metal sols usually contain 0 Τ - 0 · 5 % metal, the sols of hydroxides and sulphides 1 - 5 % of the solid. T h e concentration of the solutions of fibrous molecular colloids, t o o , is usually only about 0 - 2 - 1 % . More concentrated sols of fibrous substances set easily. It is possible, however, to prepare quite concentrated sols of hydrophilic spherocolloids, for instance 1 0 - 1 5 % sols of albumin or casein. Concentrated sols of ferric hydroxide or arsenious sulphide are also known. F o r instance, BOUTARIC a n d VUILLAUME ( 1 9 2 4 ) prepared a n arsenious sul- phide sol which contained 3 0 0 grams A s 2 S 3 per litre.
This is obtained from equation (4) by introducing the dimensions of the quantities ; the mass cancels out. The solution of the equation (4), however, is quite complicated. Tables are available to facilitate the estimation 40 KINETIC PROPERTIES OF DISPERSE SYSTEMS of D from the determined concentration values in different layers in certain time intervals. The values for D obtained in diffusion experiments with colloids can be introduced in the equation (3), so that Ν or r can be calculated. The value of Z>, which SVEDBERG obtained experimentally from FICK'S law for a particular gold sol, if introduced in (3), gives r the value of 1-29.